EXAMINING THE DEVELOPMENT OF 21ST CENTURY SKILLS AMONG STREET-CONNECTED CHILDREN IN NON-FORMAL SCHOOLS

Authors

  • Saima Jabeen Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan
  • Zafar Iqbal Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Tooba Saleem Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Keywords:

Classroom instruction, level of development, non-formal education, 21st-century skills, street-connected children

Abstract

The improvement of teacher’s instructions garnering more attention for the development of 21st-century skills. However, a key challenge in achieving the desired improvements is incorporating relevant strategies for promoting teacher professional development and a context-specific understanding of teaching practices. This paper focuses on the examination of the development of 21st-century skills among street-connected children in Pehli Kiran Schools. These are non-formal schools in slum areas of Islamabad. A quantitative approach followed by structured observation was used. The teachers and students of Pehli Kiran Schools were the research population. The study involved a sample of participants from two branches of Pehli Kiran Schools (PKS-5 and PKS-8). The sample included 10 teachers and 26 students. The two branches (PKS-5 and PKS-8) were chosen using a random sampling technique. All teachers and students in the 5th grade across both branches of schools were observed, employing a census sampling technique. The researchers used two checklists that were designed for observing and recording information in order to gather evidence for their study. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The instruction was found to be quite relevant to the development of character, citizenship, collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, and communication skills. However, these skills were well developed among street-connected children, except communication skills, which were developed at a moderate level. The study recommended that there should be language labs in these schools where students can practice for the development of communication skills. The use of multimedia, technology, videos, and audio recordings should be encouraged.

 

Author Biographies

Saima Jabeen, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan

PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan

Zafar Iqbal, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Assistant Professor,

Department of Distance, Non-Formal and Continuing Education

Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Tooba Saleem, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Lecturer, Secondary Teacher Education Department,

Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

 

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Published

04-02-2024

How to Cite

Saima Jabeen, Iqbal, Z., & Tooba Saleem. (2024). EXAMINING THE DEVELOPMENT OF 21ST CENTURY SKILLS AMONG STREET-CONNECTED CHILDREN IN NON-FORMAL SCHOOLS. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION, 4(1), 48–71. Retrieved from http://eri.com.pk/index.php/Journal/article/view/63